The steady movements of a sphere over a rough incline in air, and over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid were studied theoretically and experimentally. The principle of energy conservation was used to analyze the translation velocities, rolling resistances, and drag coefficients of a sphere moving over the inclines. The rolling resistance to the movement of a sphere from the rough incline was presumed to be caused by collisions and frictional slidings. A varnished wooden board was placed on the bottom of an experimental tilting flume to form a smooth incline and a layer of spheres identical to the sphere moving over them was placed on the smooth wooden board to form a rough incline. Spheres used in the experiments were glass spheres, steel spheres, and golf balls. Experiments show that a sphere moving over a rough incline with negligible fluid drag in air can reach a constant translation velocity. This constant velocity was found to be proportional to the bed inclination (between 11 ^circ and 21^circ) and the square root of the sphere's diameter, but seemingly independent of the sphere's specific gravity. Two empirical coefficients in the theoretical expression of the sphere's translation velocity were determined by experiments. The collision and friction parts of the shear stress exerted on the interface between the moving sphere and rough incline were determined. The ratio of collision to friction parts appears to increase with increase in the bed inclination. These two parts seem to be of the same order of magnitude. The rolling resistances and the relations between the drag coefficient and Reynolds number for a sphere moving over smooth and rough inclines in a liquid, such as water or salad oil, were determined by a regression analysis based on experimental data. It was found that the drag coefficient for a sphere over the rough incline is larger than that for a sphere over the smooth incline, and both of which are much larger than that for a sphere in free
To assess the influence of implant thread shape and inclination on the mechanical behaviour of bone-implant systems. The study assesses which factors influence the initial and full osseointegration stages. Point clouds of the original implant were created using a non-contact reverse engineering technique. A 3D tessellated surface was created using Geomagic Studio software. From cross-section curves, generated by intersecting the tessellated model and cutting-planes, a 3D parametric CAD model was created using SolidWorks 2017. By the permutation of three thread shapes (rectangular, 30 trapezoidal, 45 trapezoidal) and three thread inclinations (0, 3 or 6), nine geometric configurations were obtained. Two different osseointegration stages were analysed: the initial osseointegration and a full osseointegration. In total, 18 different FE models were analysed and two load conditions were applied to each model. The mechanical behaviour of the models was analysed by Finite Element (FE) Analysis using ANSYS v. 17.0. Static linear analyses were also carried out. ANOVA was used to assess the influence of each factor. Models with a rectangular thread and 6 inclination provided the best results and reduced displacement in the initial osseointegration stages up to 4.58%. This configuration also reduced equivalent VM stress peaks up to 54%. The same effect was confirmed for the full osseointegration stage, where 6 inclination reduced stress peaks by up to 62%. The FE analysis confirmed the beneficial effect of thread inclination, reducing the displacement in immediate post-operative conditions and equivalent VM stress peaks. Thread shape does not significantly influence the mechanical behaviour of bone-implant systems but contributes to reducing stress peaks in the trabecular bone in both the initial and full osseointegration stages. Copyright 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Steep inclination and excessive anteversion angles of acetabular cups could result in adverse edge-loading. This, in turn, increases contact pressure and impingement risk for traditional artificial hip joints. However, the influence of high inclination and anteversion angles on both the kinematics and contact mechanics of dual mobility hip implants has rarely been examined. This study focuses on investigating both the kinematics and contact mechanics of a dual mobility hip implant under different inclination and anteversion angles using a dynamic explicit finite element method developed in a previous study. The results showed that an inclination angle of both the back shell and liner ranging from 30 to 70 had little influence on the maximum contact pressure and the accumulated sliding distance of inner and outer surfaces of the liner under normal walking gait. The same results were obtained for an anteversion angle of the liner varying between -20 and +20. However, when the anteversion angle of the liner was beyond this range, the contact between the femoral neck and the inner rim of the liner occurred. Consequently, this caused a relative rotation at the outer articulation. This suggests that both inclination and modest anteversion angles have little influence on the kinematics and contact mechanics of dual mobility hip implants. However, too excessive anteversion angle could result in a rotation for this kind of hip implant at both articulations. Copyright 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gravitational signals arising from the otolith organs and vertical plane rotational signals arising from the semicircular canals interact extensively for accurate estimation of tilt and inertial acceleration. Here we used a classical signal detection paradigm to examine perceptual interactions between otolith and horizontal semicircular canal signals during simultaneous rotation and translation on a curved path. In a rotation detection experiment, blindfolded subjects were asked to detect the presence of angular motion in blocks where half of the trials were pure nasooccipital translation and half were simultaneous translation and yaw rotation (curved-path motion). In separate, translation detection experiments, subjects were also asked to detect either the presence or the absence of nasooccipital linear motion in blocks, in which half of the trials were pure yaw rotation and half were curved path. Rotation thresholds increased slightly, but not significantly, with concurrent linear velocity magnitude. Yaw rotation detection threshold, averaged across all conditions, was 1.45 0.81/s (3.49 1.95/s2). Translation thresholds, on the other hand, increased significantly with increasing magnitude of concurrent angular velocity. Absolute nasooccipital translation detection threshold, averaged across all conditions, was 2.93 2.10 cm/s (7.07 5.05 cm/s2). These findings suggest that conscious perception might not have independent access to separate estimates of linear and angular movement parameters during curved-path motion. Estimates of linear (and perhaps angular) components might instead rely on integrated information from canals and otoliths. Such interaction may underlie previously reported perceptual errors during curved-path motion and may originate from mechanisms that are specialized for tilt-translation processing during vertical plane rotation. PMID:20554843 59ce067264